Chart data and survey reports

This page provides various chart, data and survey reports conducted by Government, Non-Government and international agencies on legal issues having public importance. We have also conducted research and survey by our own on some areas of law.

We believe in authenticity, fair, neutral, impartial, reliable and justified reports, surveys and data collection process based on international standards.

1. Courts of Bangladesh (updated on 15.4.2015)
2. Legal profession in Bangladesh (Updated on 15.4.2015)
3. Violence against Women (VAW) data (2010-2014).
4. Gender Gap Indexes (GGI) report on data basis by WEF (2006-2014)
5. State of Consumer Rights protection in Bangladesh –survey- (2013-2014)
6. Lists of gender related laws of Bangladesh
7. Lists of Environment related laws of Bangladesh
8. Lists of consumer related laws of Bangladesh
9. Lists of Food related laws of Bangladesh
10. Registration laws of Bangladesh
11. Relevant International laws applicable for Bangladesh on food, consumer rights, gender, environment and Human Rights.
12. Others

Any reproduction of the chart, data and survey reports in any form for any purpose without the prior written permission of the founder of ain-qanoon.com will be treated as violation of intellectual property and copyright laws.

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Courts of Bangladesh (updated on 15.4.2015)

Names of the Ordinary and Special Courts of Bangladesh

 

Supreme Court of Bangladesh:

 

  1. The Appellate Division (AD)
    ...The Chamber Judge....(A Judge of the AD to hear Leave to appeal)
  2. The High Court Division (HCD)

Subordinate civil courts of Bangladesh

      1)   The Court of the District Judge
      2)   The Court of the Additional District Judge
      3)   The Court of the Joint District Judge
      4)   The Court of the Senior Assistant Judge and
      5)   The Court of the Assistant Judge

                        There is a Court known as Divisional special Judge and Drug Court.

The subordinate criminal courts of Bangladesh

  1. Sessions Court (District level and Metropolitan level)
  2. Magistrates Court (District level which includes Thana/Upazilla; and Metropolitan level)

District level: (In general hierarchy)

i) Sessions Court can be divided into 3-catagories i.e.

      a) District sessions Judges Court
      b) Additional District Sessions Judges Court and
      c) Joint Session Judge Court (Asst. Sessions Judge Court)

Metropolitan level

  1. a) Metropolitan Sessions Judges Court
  2. b) Additional Metropolitan Sessions judges court
  3. c) Joint-Metropolitan Session Judge (Assistant Metropolitan Session Judge)
  4. ii) Magistrates Courts [according to the Cr.PC (Amdt.) 2007]
  1. i) Judicial[1] ii) Executive[2]

      District Level:

 

Executive Magistrates are:

 

Judicial Magistrates are:

a)

District Magistrate (DM); DC’s

a)

Chief Judicial Magistrate

b)

Additional District Magistrate (ADM)/ ADC’s

b)

Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate (ACJM)

c)

Assistant Commissioner’s are known as Executive Magistrate

c)

Senior Judicial Magistrate (1st class Magistrate/ Metropolitan Magistrate/ Special Magistrate)

 

 

d)

Judicial Magistrate( 2nd Class & 3rd class)

 

 

 

-----

                        Thana Magistrate and sub divisional Magistrate is some posts for remote area. These Magistrates are commonly Judicial Magistrates.

Metropolitan level (All the following Magistrates are Judicial Magistrate)

¨ Chief Metropolitan Magistrates Court (CMM);

¨ Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate (ACMM);

¨ Metropolitan Magistrate (MM)

                        The Govt. shall appoint such other qualified persons as Executive Magistrate to the Metropolitan city as necessary.

Special Courts and Tribunals

      ¨ Administrative Tribunal

      ¨ Administrative Appellate Tribunal

      ¨ Customs Appellate Tribunal

      ¨ Tax Appellate Tribunals

  1. i) The commissioner of Taxes (Inspecting joint Commissioner of Taxes); ii) Deputy Commissioner of Taxes and iii) The Appellate Joint Commissioner of Taxes

      ¨  Labour Appellate Tribunals

      ¨  Labour Courts

      ¨  EPZ Labour Court

      ¨  Special Tribunal

      ¨  Family Courts

      ¨  Village Courts

      ¨  Small Causes Courts

      ¨  The Conciliation Board

      ¨  The Artha Rin Adalat

      ¨  The Bankruptcy Court (Daowlia Adalat)

            ¨                    The Acid violation prevention Tribunal (Acid Aporadh Damon Tribunal)

            ¨                    The Women and Child Repression Prevention Tribunal (Nari-o-shishu-nirjatan-damon-tribunal)

      ¨  Money laundering Court

      ¨  The Juvenile Court

      ¨  The Speedy Trial Tribunal (Druto-Bichar-Tribunal)

      ¨  The Settlement Court

      ¨  The Environment Court

      ¨  The Environment Appellate Tribunal

      ¨  Court of Special District Judge” or (Special Court of Session)

      ¨  The Bangladesh Bar Council Tribunal

      ¨  The Arbitration Tribunal

      ¨ Electricity Court

      ¨  Election Tribunal

      ¨  Mobile Court

* Cyber Tribunal

* Cyber Appellate Tribunal;

* Claims tribunal

* Marine Court

* Special Judge

* The Food (Special Court)

* Drug Court

* Pornography Tribunal

Legal profession in Bangladesh (Updated on 15.4.2015)


_______________________________________________________________________________




Types of lawyers in Bangladesh

In terms of enrolment there are five types of lawyers are now existing in Bangladesh

(i) Advocates to the subordinate Court who are entitled to practice in all the Subordinate Courts of Bangladesh only[3];

(ii) Advocates to the High Court who have right to practice in the High Court and all the subordinate courts of Bangladesh[4];

(iii) Advocates on record[5] who are entitled to practice before the Appellate Division. A senior Advocate or any other Advocate in the Appellate Division can plead in any appeal only under the instruction of an Advocate-on-Record. No case can be filed in the Appellate Division without engaging an Advocate-on-Record.

(iv) Senior Advocate: According to Rule 11 of Order IV of the Appellate Division Rules, 1988, the Chief Justice and the judges may, on application or otherwise, select, from time to time, from among those whose names are on the Roll of the Advocates, persons who are judged, by their knowledge, ability and experience, to be worthy of being granted the status of Senior advocate and on signing the Roll of Senior Advocates shall assume the said status. A senior advocate cannot be enrolled as Advocate-on-Record (Rule 16).

(v) Advocate to the Appellate Division: According to Rule 3 of Order IV of the Appellate Division Rules, 1988 a person may be appointed as an Advocate to the Appellate Division who has practiced in the High Court Division as an Advocate for a period of not less than five years. A person who is not enrolled in the Appellate Division may appear with special permission.

Advocate for the State

In Bangladesh there are four types of lawyers or officers who are appearing on behalf of the prosecution i.e. state.

  • Attorney General: The Attorney general for Bangladesh is appointed by the President who mainly functions in the Supreme Court though he has the right of audience in all courts of Bangladesh. Article -64 of our constitution provides that the Attorney General shall perform such duties as may be assigned to him by the President. In the Supreme Court except the Attorney General for Bangladesh there are also Deputy Attorney generals, Assistant Attorney Generals etc to plead on behalf of the State.

Article-26. (1) The Attorney General for Bangladesh shall have the right of pre-audience over all other advocates.

      (2) The right of pre-audience among other advocates shall be determined by seniority interse.

(ii) Public Prosecutor (PP)[6]: In respect of criminal matters in the sub-ordinate Courts especially before the Sessions Courts or Special Tribunals Public Prosecutors are appointed by the Government. The Prosecutors may appear for the State before the Magistrate Courts also. The PP’s are of three types, public prosecutor, additional Public prosecutor and Assistant Public prosecutors. There are special public prosecutors working in the Special Courts or Tribunals.

(iii) Government Pleaders (G P): In civil matters the Government may appoint any qualified lawyers to appear on behalf of the State who will be known as GP.

(iv) Court Sub Inspector(CSI): In the Magistrate Courts or Sub-ordinate criminal Courts the Government may appoint some Police officers to act on behalf of the State who are known as CSI.



___________________________________________________________________________________________



Violence against Women (VAW) data (2010-2014) in Bangladesh.

  1. Survey and reports on VAW in Bangladesh
    1. VAW survey 2011
  • Many women in Bangladesh do not report crime against them, as they are ashamed for the fear of social stigma, criticism, disbelief or further violence.[7] It is observed that a woman who has been raped undergoes two crisis, one the rape and the other the subsequent investigation and trial although the Supreme Court has recently prohibited two finger tests.
  • Bangladesh has become one of the pioneers through conducting the VAW Survey 2011[8]. The results of VAW Survey 2011 identified that as many as 87% of currently married women have ever experienced any       type of violence       by current husband       and 77% reported       any type of violence faced during the past 12 months from the survey time.
  • More than four percent of women have ever experienced sexual violence by non-partner, and one percent of women experienced during the past 12 months.[9]
  • Only 8 percent said they had never abused by a man other than their husband.
  • The survey was conducted on 12600 women randomly chosen in 7 divisions of Bangladesh titled VAW survey 2011 by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the report was published on December 2013.[10]
    1. Reports of VAW in National Action Plan 2013-2025

The National Action Plan (NAP) to prevent violence against women (VAW) 2013-2025 published by the Ministry of Women and children Affairs, Bangladesh mentioned that VAW is pandemic in Bangladesh and ranges from 42 to 70 percent where women of reproductive ages between 19-49 are the worst affected by violence.[11] The NAP stated data collected from 24 national dailies regarding VAW as follows[12]:

Year & Type of violence

2010

2011

2012

2013 (Up to August)

Total

Physical

1610

2060

2389

1477

7536

Rape

128

179

239

167

713

Gang rape

139

115

84

92

430

Sexual harassment

73

86

117

68

344

Burn (acid throwing)

177

213

174

104

596

Grand total

2127

2653

3003

1908

9619

    1. NGO reports on VAW in 2014

Violence against woman (report by odhikar[13] from2010 to 2013) based on few selected newspaper and media report

Name of offence

Report year 2010 (published on 1.1.2011, pp-63-74)

Report year 2011 (Published on January 7,2012, pp 109-119)

Report year 2012 (published on January 12,2013, pp 78-88)

Report year 2013 (Published on April 15, 2014, pp-120-130)

Comments

Sexual Harassment and stalking

273

(26 female and 139 male were victims for protesting)

915 (Male 201 and female 714 victimized)

479 (Female 20 and male 129 were victims for protesting)

333 (Female 9 and male 89 were victims for protesting)

Many committed suicide or murdered or victims of acid throwing for protesting

Rape

559 (248 woman and 311 child+ others unidentified)

711 (246 woman and 450 child and 15 others not identified)

805 (299 woman and 473 child and 33 not identified)

814 (336 woman and 452 child and 26 others not identified)

Many committed suicide or killed followed by Rape

Dowry related violence

378

529

822

443

Many were murdered or victims of acid throwing for dowry

Acid violence

137 (female 84 and girl 16)

101 (female 57 and girl 10)

105 (58 woman and 20 girl)

53 (36 woman and 5 girl)

Men are also victims of acid throwing

Illegal fatwa and illegal arbitration

5 woman and 4 man

05 (4 woman and 1 man)

17 (9 woman and 8 man)

--

Man and woman both are victims of this offence

 

  • Reasons of acid throwing against woman are refuse to marry or love or dating or sex or marital problems. The other reasons are enmity, land dispute, dowry, rape attempt etc.
  • Nature of dowry is physical torture or mental torture leading to suicide or absconding from marital home or causing suicide.
  • Reasons of illegal fatwa are love relationship or premarital pregnancy or oral divorce or rape or attempt to rape or false allegation in character or family dispute or love marriage or crime for marriage or disagree to sign in white paper.

The ASK[14] (Ain-o-shalish kendro) report from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014 on violence against woman (based on newspaper report) given below:

Year and Name of offence

Rape

Sexual harassment

dowry

Acid attacks

Illegal fatwa/ shalish

Remarks

2014

707 (68 murdered after rape)

241 (female 146 and male 95)

296 (11 committed suicide and 163 tortured to death)

48

32

Based on few(14) daily newspaper report

The ASK also reported 488 incidents of domestic violence i.e. caused by husband or his relatives or in-laws against the wife that resulted in murder sometimes of which 261 cases were filed.

Bangladesh Mahila Parishad (BMP) published its report of violence against women and children in 2014. It revealed that more than 4500 women and children were subjected to murder, rape, acid attack, physical torture, suicide and other forms of violence across the country in 2014. The data collected from reports of 13 Bangla and English national newspapers between January and December showed that 939 women were raped last year. Of them, 174 were gang raped and 99 were killed after rape. It is also reported that 341 women committed suicide, 431 tortured for dowry and 236 were murdered for dowry and 93 child marriages case were reported during such period.[15]

Gender Gap Indexes (GGI) report on data basis by WEF (2006-2014)

Bangladesh ranked 68 out of 142 countries in gender gap Index of 2014 by WEF and scored 0.697.

Bangladesh ranked 127 in economic participation and opportunity category where female to male ratio in labour force participation is 0.70; wage equality for similar work (survey) is 0.57; estimated earned income (PPP US dollar) is 0.52; legislators, senior officials and managers is 0.06; professional and technical workers is 0.32;

Bangladesh ranked 111 in education attainment category where female to male ratio in literacy rate is 0.88; enrolment in primary education is 1.04; enrolment in secondary education is 1.16; enrolment in tertiary education is 0.69.

Bangladesh ranked 122 in health and survival category where female to male ratio in sex ratio at birth (female/male) is 0.96; healthy life expectancy is 1.02.

Regarding political empowerment category Bangladesh ranked 10 where female to male ratio in women in parliament is 0.25; women in Ministerial Position 0.07; Years with female head of state (last 50 yr) 0.70.

Table showing world ranking in gender gap Index (GGI) of Bangladesh by WEF[16] (from 2014 to 2006)

Year in GGI

Overall World Ranking

Economic participation

Educational Attainment

Health and Survival

Political Empowerment

2014

68 (out of 142 countries)

127

111

122

10

2013

75 (out of 136 countries)

121

115

124

07

2012

86 (out of 135 countries)

121

118

123

08

2011

69 (out of 135 countries)

118

108

123

11

2010

82 (out of 134 countries)

117

108

122

12

2009

93 (out of 134 countries)

121

105

127

17

2008

90 (out of 130 countries)

119

104

124

13

2007

100 (out of 128 countries)

116

105

122

17

2006

91 (out of 115 countries)

107

95

113

17

 

So, Bangladesh has gradually improved its position in gender gap indexes. Women’ are in a better position of enrolment in primary and secondary education and further in healthy life expectancy.

The other selected contextual data of WEF in 2014 on gender gap indexes of Bangladesh shown below:

Selected category

Female (%)

Male (%)

Adult unemployment rate

7.4

4.2

Women employed in non-agricultural sector (out of total workforce)

18

 

Account at a formal financial institution

35

44

Ability of women to rise to positions of enterprise leadership

3.9

 

Firms with female top managers (% of firms)

5

 

Firms with female participation in ownership (% of firms)

13

 

Percentage of tertiary-level STEM students

27

73

Cardiovascular disease age-standardized deaths

per 100,000 (female, male)

152.6

178.7

Cancer age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male),

excl. non-melanoma skin cancer

79.9

94.9

Diabetes age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male)

28.7

30.8

Respiratory diseases age-standardized deaths

per 100,000 (female, male)

92.7

119.6

HIV age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male)

0.2

0.3

Malaria age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male)

0.3

1.9

Tuberculosis age-standardized deaths per 100,000 (female, male)

31.9

98.7

Malnutrition prev., weight for age (female, male) (% of children <5)

38.8

34.8

Singulate mean age at marriage (years) (female, male)

19

25

Early marriage (% of women aged 15-19)

48

 

Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)

170 (94-300)

 

Total fertility rate (children per women)

2.2

 

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

80.6

 

Antenatal care coverage, at least one visit (%)

50

 

Births attended by skilled health personnel (%)

31

 

Contraceptive prevalence (% of married women or in-union)

61

 

Length of maternity leave (calendar days)

112

 

Maternity leave benefits

(% of wages paid in covered period)

100

 

Provider of maternity benefits

Employer 100%

 

Parental authority in marriage

1 (worst score)

 

Parental authority after divorce

1 (worst score)

 

Female genital mutilation (% of women aged 15-49)

0(Best score)

 

Existence of legislation punishing acts of violence

against women in case of domestic violence

0.3 (in the scale of 0-1)

 

Inheritance rights of daughters

0.5 (in the scale of 0-1)

 

Women’s access to land ownership

0.5 (in the scale of 0-1)

 

Women’s access to credit

0.5 (in the scale of 0-1)

 

Women’s access to property other than land

0.5 (in the scale of 0-1)

 

Year women received right to vote

1935,1972

 

Quota type (single/lower house)

Reserved seats

 

 The WEF mistakenly stated that no Legislation permitting abortion to preserve a woman’s physical health. The WEF also did not consider special Ministry, Divisions, Courts, tribunals etc, set up by the Government for protecting women rights.

 

 ________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 
 

State of Consumer Rights protection in Bangladesh –survey- (2013-2014)



Research findings:

The research findings based on the survey has multi-facet importance to my original topic “Consumer rights protection and economic prospects: A contextual analysis of the consumer Laws of Bangladesh with international trading systems”. The findings on the basis of respondents’ comments given in the questionnaire that contained a set of 50 questions with respondents’ profile may be summarized below:

  • The consumers in general not aware about consumer related laws of Bangladesh and could not match legal definition of consumers with their perception on the definition of consumer and consumer rights. It is rare among the consumers perception that purchasing services is part of consumer law. Even the consumers have no clear conception that using a product or service with the consent of purchaser is regarded as a consumer.
  • The consumers are mostly not sure about their rights guaranteed by the constitution and also supported by various national and international laws. They are concerned about adulteration of foods and drugs which is connected to right to safety but very few of them taken seriously about cheating and fraud in purchase especially on diminishing quality of product and services, giving less than expected weights and measurements, supplying date expired products, charging excessive price, providing counterfeit of products, selling imitation of products, no scientific idea on ingredients of cosmetic and electronics products, not collecting warranty and guarantee, not thinking of after sale services, becoming influenced by false advertisements, sufferings for aggressive marketing policy, not filing cases for accidental damages, no idea of passenger insurances or other insurance facilities, not having idea on courts and other institutions working for consumers interests,. The consumers are mostly negligent and compromising to their right to safety, right to choice, right to know, right to healthy environment, right to education, right to information, right to fulfillment of basic needs, right to redress and right to be heard.
  • The consumers are very much dissatisfied with the existing conditions and thinks their status is poor and very poor which needs to be addressed immediately for effective enforcement of consumer laws. It is found that 76% consumers are completely frustrated and dissatisfied with the present situation of our consumer markets.
  • The main reasons for product consumers dissatisfaction are no price controlling system, low quality and unsafe items of goods and services, adulteration of foods and drugs, no monitoring and standard check by Govt., Sale of date expired products, Fake scale of weight and measurement etc,.
  • The consumers of Bangladesh are mostly concerned about products as more than 50% of their income is spending for purchasing essential commodities and a huge amount for purchasing drugs and medicines in general. They have few options to think of recreation, comfort, fashion and style. However, there is a growing trend of fashions and lifestyles in the urban areas who are spending enough for dresses, electronic items and cosmetics.
  • The consumers are spending less in purchasing fruits that indicates their less priority of dieting systems and nutritious food habits.
  • It is interesting that the consumers want a product with cheap price or cheap rate or reduced fees but at the same time wants that the quality, style, fashion, status, durability, sustainability, comfort, safety and security of the product must be ensured simultaneously.
  • It is a serious issue that consumers are not known to the authority who are working for their interests except a small number of the respondents identified the name of Mobile Court. It is interesting that 60% consumers comments that only Mobile Court can not ensure consumer rights.
  • It is found that consumers are mainly blaming for their sufferings not only upon the producer or manufacturer, distributor or supplier and seller but also upon the ineffective legal actions by the executive and judicial authorities, unethical business practices, corrupted administrations and also against insufficient and ineffective law.
  • The consumers thinks that genetic engineering, bio-technology and hybrid production is against the interest of local food, local food stuffs, indigenous habit, culture and religious faith . Whether genetic engineering, bio-technology and hybrid production may cause adverse impact over nature and violate natural imbalances should be taken into serious consideration for the greater interest of consumer and their rights.
  • The respondents in a huge number considers unethical business prctices is the main reason of price hike. The other reasons of price hike included no control and monitoring system over markets, over population, import of goods, open market economy and absence of effective competition laws.
  • The consumers are mostly cheated by false information, concealing information, excessive price, low quality products with high price, imitation, violation of contractual obligation, shortage of products in the market giving them no choice, counterfeit, false labeling and standard marks, adulteration, date expired, no receipt for purchase, false weight and measurement, no guarantee or warranty card, additional payment for after sale services, mixing goods with other low quality items, selling stolen and smuggled goods in open market, coercion marketing strategy, false advertisements etc,. So, the consumers are in a whole in a vulnerable state and cheating is a business practice in Bangladesh now.
  • It is further a serious issue that the consumers are being cheated but remains helpless and without lawful remedy. The main reason may be restriction in filing criminal cases directly by the consumers or payment of laboratory test fees and court fees for other cases or suits by the complainant or plaintiff.
  • Regarding service consumers, it is found that health, transport, utility, real estate, tele communication, online and banking services are the area where consumers rights have been seriously affected.
  • The consumers are seriously unhappy with the prevailing health and medical services in Bangladesh due to excessive charges/ fees, for false/ unnecessary diagnosis, for business with profit making attitude without service mentality, for lack of professionalism from nurses and doctors as well. A number respondents are dissatisfied for various other grounds such as noisy environment, polluted air with bad smell, lack of nursing and cleanliness, no frequent monitoring or visits by senior doctors, lack of emergency support, No ICU or CCU or other modern facilities in many hospitals, no supply of quality food and maintenance of hygiene, no psychological or traumatic supports for accidental, rape and other victims etc,.
  • It is interesting that the ratio of dependency on public general hospitals or health centres comparing to private clinics or hospitals is very high which is 21% and 9% respectively. The reasons behind this may be availability of senior doctors, lump-sump fees for visit and tests, availability of cabin or bed, financial incapacity of the consumer etc,. So, the government can improve public hospitals conditions and at the same time maintain with a regulatory body for monitoring private doctors and private hospitals/ clinics for ensuring health services in Bangladesh. A large number of consumers who are going abroad or have no confidence on our native health services spending a huge amount of taka for their treatments outside should be turned into our own hospitals and clinics if proper services and proper treatments can be ensured through overall changes of the health service systems.
  • The respondents provided a unique opinion that they consider health insurances and free medical checkup for all the citizens can improve the health services system in Bangladesh. A number of them suggest that shall fix rates or fees for doctors and diagnosis and the Govt. shall ensure quality drugs or medicine with reasonable price. However, some consumer’s talks about the political involvements of doctors, nurses and others in the medical services are a problem for our health services. There are some consumers who suggests use of technology, training for doctors, nurses, medical officers, expansion of rural health services etc,. are also important for improvement of health service conditions in Bangladesh.
  • Transport services are another fields where most consumers have experienced faulty management systems and sustained sufferings including huge number of accidental death in each day. The respondents in a huge number which is 87% gives in favour of safety net insurances for the victims who suffered by accident or adulteration or unethical business practices. The respondents are seriously unhappy with the existing compensation system which is commonly provided from the relief fund of the government and in a small amount which cannot help the victims or his relatives.
  • The respondents consider multiple reasons behind accidents in Bangladesh such as vulnerable road/ railways/navigation system, lack of proper training and rests necessary to driver/ master, no exemplary punishments for accident, no existing laws on passenger insurances or compensation by the offender, lack of interest to implement law by the traffic police or law enforcing agencies etc, lack of professionalism from drivers and faulty traffic laws and systems. So, there is an essentiality for changing our laws, traffic systems, implementation of laws, up gradation of roads, highways, railways, navigation systems, making laws on passenger insurances and further to provide professional training to the drivers, masters etc,. The use of online, GPRS system may help in this regard for monitoring and providing exemplary punishments and also compensations to the victims. It is further necessary to open foot paths or foot over bridges or underpass for the commuters and also by inaugurating elevated express way or bullet trains to reduce congestion of traffic systems and also to curb accidents. The Hats, bazaars and human habitation besides highways and railways should not be allowed for reducing number of accidental death.
  • The maximum number of respondents considers that trade union is a barrier for ensuring justice to the accidental victims or to provide them with damages.
  • The respondents are in favour of taking multiple actions for ensuring consumer rights in the transport sectors in Bangladesh. The actions may be Effective monitoring on the income and expenditure of trade unions, Improving conditions of roads, highways, navigation and railways, Fixing fare on all routes of road, railway, waterways and regular monitoring by the law enforcing agencies to ensure fair prices, becoming Strict on training and professional ethics before issuing any licenses to a driver, master or others and regular monitoring on their capability, ensuring Effective Law enforcement for negligent, rash driving and other violations with an effective traffic policing system free from extortion, Digitalization of all routes, vehicles, railways, navigation systems, licensing systems, ticketing systems and regular monitoring on that, and initiating compulsory Passenger/commuter insurances, Receiving passenger complain with quick action and quick accidental redress mechanisms. However, professional training and passenger insurances are always getting priority by the consumers for ensuring consumer rights.
  • The majority of respondents have given answer in favour of privatization of electricity and gas or other utility services for better services.
  • The 82% of the respondents are dissatisfied with land owners, land developers and real estate business in Bangladesh. The realtors taking different modes of unethical practices such as false advertisement based on lies and misleading information without approval of their projects from lawful authorities, fraud, misrepresentation and illegal grabbing of land, selling same property or flat to many without registration and giving to none by misappropriating money or returning money through installment without interests and the culprits are encouraged by that as no actions are taken against them by respective authorities for such illegal and unethical activities
  • The majority consumers are dissatisfied with telecommunication services and stated multiple reasons for their dissatisfaction over telecommunication services such as Frequent network disruption, false advertisement using telecommunication services, threat to right to safety, Security and privacy, not available network all over the country, high price of phone sets and accessories and not adequate after sale services, high price/ rate/charges for call and other services. Few consumers says that customer care centre are charging in the name of customer care, no Bangla online or phones, network busy tones, and a few consumers blames abusive and aggressive marketing by using telecommunication services.
  • A number of 86% of the respondents suggested adding free services, mobile banking services, banking and financial services and online services to our Consumer Rights Protection Act.
  • The majority consumers are disappointed and dissatisfied with after sales services in Bangladesh and a large number of them never heard or found of after sales services without payment.
  • The consumers of Bangladesh have been suffering from various problems and systematic disorders such as lack of interest to file cases due to lengthy and costly legal proceedings, no strong consumer association, Lack of awareness and not educated on consumer rights, poverty etc,.
  • The consumers of Bangladesh are nearly united (94%) into their expectations of finding ethical business practices. They have stated that ethical business practices may be ensured through Proper laws and its implementation, by providing Financial security, investment friendly environment etc, by ensuring free from bribery, extortion, harassment and undue influence, through Political stability, by ensuring family, social and cultural bondage with reciprocal responsibility, and by taking effective measures on all the above as stated. Some respondents comment that ethical business practices is impossible while corruption is surrounding business functions.    
  • It is found that consumers are deprived of getting access to justice in Bangladesh. The reasons are multi-dimensional such as consumers believes that no money no justice, corruption in every stages from filing to judgement by relevant police, court officers and employees, lawyers etc, High fees, harassment and uncertain delay in proceedings, no proper assistance from police, lawyer and court and complicated laws . The survey result is disappointing as 52% of the consumers consider that the existing judiciary is not favorable for ensuring justice to the justice seeker and 17% refrained from making any comment on the issue.
  • A number of 61% respondents blame multiplicity of laws as a barrier o consumer rights.
  • The majority respondents consider that BSTI, Bar Council, Drug Council, Medical Council etc. are not working in appropriate way to ensure consumer rights.
  • It is a matter of great expectation that 65% of the resonpends consider that proper implementation of consumer rights shall ensure economic progress and development and 19% made no comments. The consumers may be benefited if labeling and standard marks are properly given, adulteration is stopped, services are given properly, accidental deaths and damages is reduced in a remarkable number, cheating and unethical business practices is punished etc,.
  • 57% consumers consider that import of goods and various consumer items including international trading system is a barrier for ensuring consumer rights in Bangladesh.
  • The results from this survey gives no concrete senses about the matter on whether effective implementation of intellectual property laws (i.e. copyright, trademark right, patent right, design right) shall have adverse impact over consumers in Bangladesh or not. A number of 15% made no comments who are the life liners in giving answer to this question which shall lead us to a conclusion. However, 46% population of Bangladesh at present is against the strict application of intellectual property laws.
  • The consumers’ en masse wants reforms of the existing consumer rights protection laws who are 80% out of the total respondents attended in this survey.
  • 64% respondents consider that false and misleading advertisement is a great concern for effective implementation of consumer rights in Bangladesh and 14% respondents abstained in making any comments that suggested that advertisements impacts on consumers decision making process and therefore false advertisements infringes his rights. It is interesting that consumers are influenced by different ways of media and advertisements of which 43% by audio-visual, 17% by printing, 15% by online, 13% by audio and 13% by other forms. Several consumers say that they are influenced by talk show, some by leaflet, banner and festoons, some by procession and few by seminar and workshops. So, the government may use the best medium for creating awareness among consumers for enforcing their rights.
  • The consumers of Bangladesh mostly knows that food, shelter, apparel, medicine and education is a part of our fundamental rights which is basically part of human rights or fundamentalprinciples of state policy in our consitution. So 72% given answer in favour of the inclusion of those matter in our constitution as fundamental rights. However, the government although enacted many laws separately for ensuring various rights of consumers they are not yet interested to include all those as fundmenetal rights due to financial incapacity.
  • It is clear from the survey that Child, youth, adult and age-old i.e. all categories of our citizens are in a vulnerable position for adulteration of food and drugs.

The End


_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Lists of gender related laws of Bangladesh


Citation of national laws of Bangladesh

  1. (Satidah Pratha Nirodh Ain, 1829, repealed)”.
  2. Acid Control Act, 2002 (Act No. 1 of 2002), (sections-36 to 42);
  3. Acid Crime Prevention Act, 2002 (Act No. 2 of 2002), (sections-4 to 8);
  4. Human Trafficking Prevention and Suppression Act, 2012 9Act No. 3 of 2012), (sections-6 to 16).
  5. Mobile Court Act, 2009 (Act No. 59 of 2009), (sections-eve teasing).
  6. National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women, 2013-2025
  7. National Women Policy 2011
  8. Parents Maintenance Act, 2013 (Act No. 49 of 2013), (sections-5)
  9. Pornography Control Act, 2012 (Act No. 9 of 2012), (sections-8)
  10. Special Privileges for Women confined in jail Act, 2006 ( Act No. 48 of 2006), (section-3 to 5)
  11. The Child Marriage restraint Act, 1929 (Act No. 19 of 1929), (sections 4 to 6)
  12. The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (Act no. 5 of 1898), (sections-all offences under the Penal Code, 1860, specially sections 5, 28, 29, 190, 195, 497)
  13. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 1972, (Articles-10, 18(2), 19, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 40, 44, 102).
  14. The Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act, 2010 (Act No. 58 of 2010), (sections-30)
  15. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1980 (Act No. 35 of 1980), (sections-3)
  16. The Evidence Act, 1872 (Act No. 1 of 1872), (sections-112 and all sections)
  17. The Family Court Ordinance, 1985 (Act No. 18 of 1985), (sections-5 and 6)
  18. The Jail Code, 1864
  19. The Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961 (Act No. 8 of 1961), (section-6)
  20. The Muslim Marriage and Divorces (registration) Act, 1974 (Act No. 52 of 1974), (sections-5)
  21. The Nari-o-shishu-nirjatan- damon Ain, 2000 (Women and Child Suppression Prevention Act) (Act No.8 of 2000), (sections-4 to 13)
  22. The Penal Code, (Act No. XLV of 1860) 1860, (Sections-8, 312-316, 359-366, 366A, 366B, 372-376,493-498, 509).
  23. The Suppression of Immoral Act, 1933 (Act No. VI of 1933), Section-4 to 12.
  24. Torture and Custodial Death Prevention Act, 2013 (Act No. 50 of 2013), (sections-15)
  25. Guardianship and Wards Act, 1890.
  26. Local Government Act, 1997 (Act No. 20 of 1997)
  27. Regulation No. II of Warren Hastings in 1772.
  28. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh (P.O. No. 76 of 1972).
  29. The District Council Act, 2010.
  30. The Local Government (City Corporation) Act, 2009 (Act No. 60 of 2009)
  31. The Local Government (paurshava) Act, 2009,( Act No. 58 of 2009).
  32. The Local Government (Union Parishad) Act,2009,( Act No.61 of 2009).
  33. The Upazilla Council (Amendment) Act 2011.
  34. The Labour Act, 2006

Case references of Bangladesh

  1. Writ petition no. 4275 of 2010
  2. Writ petition no. 5863 of 2009 read with writ petition no. 754 of 2010 and
  3. Writ Petition No. 5916 of 2008
  4. Writ petition no. 8769 of 2010)

Survey and reports

  1. ASK report on VAW, 2014, Bangladesh
  2. Bangladesh Mahila Parishad Report, 2014, Bangladesh
  3. Baseline Survey on VAW 2008, Bangladesh
  4. Human Rights Report-2011, Bangladesh ( January07, 2012), Odhikar,Bangladesh
  5. National Action Plan Report on VAW,2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 (upto August), Bangladesh
  6. Odhikar Report on VAW of 2011,2012 and 2013, Bangladesh
  7. VAW survey 2011 (published in 2013), BBS
  8. WEF, GGI report 2014.

International conventions/ commitments

  1. Beijing declarations and the platform for action 1995
  2. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of discrimination Against Women, 1979 (Articles-2b, 2c, 6, 15.1,15.2, 15.3, 15.4)
  3. Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, 2011
  4. Declaration on the elimination of violence against women, 1993 or UN General Assembly. (1994, February 23). Declaration on the Elimination of. Declaration on the Elimination of. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/A.RES.48.104.En?Opendocument, Art.2
  5. International Conference on Population and Development, linking violence against women to reproductive health & rights, and also providing recommendations to governments on how to prevent & respond to violence against women and girls, 1994.
  6. SAARC convention on preventing and combating Trafficking in women and children in women and children for prostitution 2002
  7. The United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), 1998, Article-14.
  8. UN adopted the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1999
  9. UN General Assemblypassed its first resolution calling for the protection of defenders of women's human rights, 2013.
  10. UN Secretary General's "In-depth study on all forms of violence against women,"2006
  11. UN Women."Global Norms and Standards: Ending Violence against Women". UN Women. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  12. United Nations Commission on the Status of Women(CSW), 2013
  13. Universal declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (Article-12, 16.1 and 16.2)
  14. Violence against women: Definition and scope of the problem.World Health Organization, (1997) 1, 1-3. Retrieved November 30, 2013. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence_against_women), retrieved on 11.2.2015.
  15. WHO report in 2002
  16. World Health Organizationreport on "Multi-country study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women,"2004


___________________________________________________________________________________________


Lists of Environment related laws of Bangladesh


All existing environment related laws or laws having provisions on environment of Bangladesh.

Appendix-I

Environment related laws (Acts/ Ordinance/ Order) in Bangladesh enacted during British period

Appendix-II

Environment related laws (Acts/ Ordinance/ Order) in Bangladesh enacted during Pakistan period

Appendix-III

Environment related laws (Acts/ Ordinance/ Order) enacted after independence of Bangladesh

Appendix-IV

Environment related laws (Rules/ Regulations/ Notifications/ Circulars/ Policies etc,. ) in Bangladesh

  • The Sylhet Forest Transit Rules, 1951
  • The Dinajpur and Rangpur Forest Transit Rules, 1954
  • The Dacca (Dhaka) Forest Transit Rules, 1959
  • The Mymensingh Forest Transit Rules, 1959
  • The Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar and Comilla Forest Rules, 1959
  • The East Pakistan General Forest Transit Rules, 1960
  • The Chittagong Hill Tracts Forest Transit Rules, 1974
  • Marine Fisheries Rules, 1983
  • The Pesticide Rules-1985
  • The protection and Conservation of Fish Rules, 1985 (amended in 2008):
  • The Natural Gas Safety Rules 1991;
  • the Gas Cylinder Rules 1991;
  • Shrimp Culture (avikor) Rules, 1993
  • Bangladesh National Building Code, 1993;
  • The Gas Pressure Vessel Rules 1995
  • Building Construction Rules, 1996
  • Bangladesh Environment Conservation Rules, 1997
  • Fish Products (Inspection and Quality Control) Rules’ 1997
  • The Ozone Layer Destroying Objects (Control) Rules, 2004
  • The Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Rules 2004.
  • The Sound Pollution (Control) Rules, 2006
  • The Medical Waste (Management & Processing) Rules, 2008
  • Social Forestry (Amended) Rules 2010
  • Consumer Rights Protection Rules, 2010
  • Transit Rule for Bangladesh,2011
  • Fish Feed regulation 2011
  • Fish Hatchery Regulation 2011
  • The Saw-mill (License) Rules, 2012

Policy

  • The National Environment Policies , 1992 (NEP)
  • The National Forest Policy, 1994
  • Bangladesh Food and Nutrition Policy 1997 and
  • National Policy of Nutrition 1997
  • Bangladesh Food Policy 1998;
  • National Seed policy
  • The National Water Policy, 1999
  • The National Agriculture Policy, 1999
  • Bangladesh Spotted dear rearing policy
  • The National Land Use Policy, 2001
  • Comprehensive Food Security Policy 2001
  • Bangladesh Health Policy 2002;
  • The Coastal Zone Policy, 2005
  • New National Food Policy 2006;
  • Compensation policy for casualties by wild animals, 2013
  • Circular No. ceg-4/7/123/2002/912 dated 20-10-2002 on brick kiln
  • Circular dated 08/01/1995 memo no. Sha-8/chouk-1/94/335 and also another memo no. environment/ sha:497/91/545 dated 28.02.2002 issued by the Department of Environment (DoE) on hill cutting

Appendix-V

Environment related some international laws signed and ratified by Bangladesh

In 1996, Bangladesh and India signed a thirty year agreement regarding sharing of the Ganges water. The maritime boundary disputes between Bangladesh and Myanmar and Bangladesh vs. India was settled by the ITLOS.

Bangladesh is a signatory to the following international treaties, interalia, on environmental issue:

(a) Agenda 21, the 1992 Rio Convention on Biological Diversity;

(b) The 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, applies in Bangladesh to the Sundarbans and parts of the Haor Basin (Tanguar Haor), the only such sites at present in Bangladesh;

(c) The 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora;

(d) The 1972 Convention on the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites;

(e) The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;

(f) The 1954 International Convention for Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil;

(g) The Marine Pollution Conventions; and

(h) The Basel Convention, 1989 on Hazardous Wastes.


_________________________________________________________________________________________________


Lists of consumer related laws of Bangladesh



  1. The Consumer Rights Protection Act, 2009;
  2. Bangladesh Standard Testing Institute Ordinance (BSTI), 1985;
  3. The Customs Act, 1969;
  4. The Special Powers Act, 1974;
  5. The Penal Code, 1860;
  6. The Drug Control Ordinance, 1982;
  7. The Seeds Ordinance 1977;
  8. The Tea Ordinance 1977;
  9. The Breast-milk Substitute (Regulation of Marketing) Ordinance, 1984;
  10. The Fish and Fish Products Ordinance, 1983;
  11. The Pure Food Ordinance, 1959;
  12. The Trade marks Act, 2009;
  13. The pourshava Ordinance, 1977;
  14. Rajshahi City Corporation Act, 1987;
  15. Dhaka City Corporation Ordinance, 1983;
  16. Chittagong City Corporation Ordinance, 1982;
  17. Khulna City Corporation Ordinance, 1984;
  18. Sylhet City Corporation Act, 2001;
  19. Barisal City Corporation Act, 2001;
  20. The Easement Act, 1882;
  21. The sale of goods Act, 1930;
  22. The Foodgrains Supply (Prevention and prejudicial activity) Ordinance, 1979;
  23. Dhaka Metropolitan Police Ordinances,1976;
  1. The Chittagong Metropolitan Police Ordinance, 1978;
  2. The Khulna Metropolitan Police Ordinance, 1985;
  3. The Rajshahi Metropolitan Police Ordinance, 1992;
  4. The Destructive insects and Pests Act, 1914;
  5. The Control of Essential Commodities Act, 1956;
  6. The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898;
  7. The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908;
  8. The Evidence Act, 1872;
  9. The Bar Council Order, 1972;
  10. The Canons of Professional Conduct and Etiquette, 1969;
  11. The Medical and Dental Council Act, 1980;
  12. The Medical Practice and Private Clinics and Laboratories (Regulation) Ordinance, 1982;
  13. Police Act, 1861;
  14. Police Regulation of Bengal; 1943;
  15. The Armed Police Battalions ordinance, 1979;
  1. The Armed Police Battalions (Amendment) Act, 2003;
  1. The Bengal Jail Code of 1864;
  2. The Prisons Act (No. IX of 1894 as amended);
  3. The Police (Incitement of Disaffection) Act, 1922;
  1. Special Security Force Ordinance 1986;
  2. The Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission Act, 2003;
  3. The Bangladesh Telecommunication Act, 2001;
  4. The Motor vehicle ordinances, 1983;
  5. The Inland Shipping Ordinance, 1976;
  6. The Railways Act, 1890;
  7. The Carriage by Air Act, 1934;
  8. The Right to Information Act, 2009;
  9. The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (Control and Prevention) Ordinance, 1970;
  10. The Food (Special Courts) Act, 1956;
  11. The Mobile Court Ordinance, 2007 (now repealed);
  12. The Iodine Deficiency Disorders Prevention Act, 1989;
  13. The Animal Slaughter (Restriction) And Meat Control Act, 1957;
  1. Tobacco Goods Marketing (Control) Act, 1988
  2. Price and Distribution of Essential Commodities Ordinance, 1970;
  3. Standards of Weights and Measures Ordinance, 1982;
  4. Dangerous Drug Act, 1930;
  5. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 1972;
  6. The Import of Goods (Price Equalisation Surcharge) Act, 1967;

All other laws as listed in ‘list of food related laws of Bangladesh’.

Lists of Food related laws of Bangladesh

List of laws (domestic) in Bangladesh on ‘food’, ‘food safety’, and ‘consumer rights’.

Sl No.

Title and year of enactment of the law

Act No. & year

Relevant Section(s)

01

The Constitution of Bangladesh, 1972

P.O.No. 76 of 1972

Articles-15,18,27,31,32,44,102

02

The Bangladesh Hotels and Restaurants Act, 2014

(Act No.15 of 2014)

All

03

The Bangladesh Water Act, 2013

(Act No.14 of 2013)

All

04

The Environment conservation Act, 1995

 

 

05

‘Safe food Act, 2013’

(Act No.43 of 2013)

All

06

“Edible oil Act for enrichment or improving/ fortification vitamin A, 2013

Act No. 65 of 2013

All

07

The Mobile Court Act,2009

Act No.59 of 2009.

Schedule

08

“Bangladesh applied nutrition research and training institute Act, 2012

Act No. 18 of 2012

All

09

“Wild Life (Preservation and safety) Act, 2012”

Act No.30 of 2012.

All

10

The “Plant quarantine (sango-nirodh) Act”

Act No.5 of 2011.

All

11

Animal Slaughter and Meat Quality Control Act, 2011

Act No. 16 of 2011

All

12

‘fish food and animal food Act, 2010’

Act No.2 of 2010

All

13

‘Fish hatchery Act, 2010

Act No.14 of 2010.

All

14

The Consumer Rights Protection Act, 2009

Act No.26 of 2009.

All

15

The Penal Code, 1860

 

Sections-272-275

16

“Chittagong veterinary and animal sciences university Act,2006

 

 

17

The Animal diseases Act, 2005

Act No.5 of 2005.

All

18

‘Bangladesh animal and animal produced quarantine Act,2005’

Act no.6 of 2005.

All

19

The smoking and use of tobacco products control Act, 2005 (now 2013)

Act No.11 of 2005

All

20

“Mother-Child Health Institute Act,2002”

Act No.16 of 2002

All

21

“Water Supply and Sanitation Authority Act,1996’

Act no.6 of 1996.

All

22

“Shrimp Culture surcharge Act”,1992

Act No.53 of 1992

All

23

The Narcotics Control Act, 1990

Act No.20 of 1990

All

24

The Iodine deficiency disorders prevention Act,1989

Act No.10 of 1989

All

25

‘The Ground Water management Ordinance, 1985’

Ordinance No.27 of 1985

All

26

The Fisheries Research Institute Ordinance, 1984

(Ordinance No.45 of 1984)

All

27

The  Breast-Milk Substitutes (Regulation of Marketing) Ordinance, 1984

Ordinance No.33 of 1984

All

28

The marine Fisheries Ordinance, 1983

Ordinance No.35 of 1983

All

29

The Seeds Ordinance, 1977

Ordinance No.33 of 1977

All

30

The Tea Ordinance 1977

Ordinance No.38 of 1977

All

31

The Sale of Goods Act, 1930

 

All

32

The Import of Goods (Price Equalisation Surcharge) Act, 1967

 

All

33

Special Powers Act, 1974

Act No. XIV of 1974

Section-25C

34

The essential Commodities Act: Policy for fixation of quantity of Storage and date of expiration, 2011

 

All

35

Fixation of fees for licences of Foodgrains and food products, 2011

 

All

36

Foodgrains supply policy, 2008

 

All

37

National Food Policy,2006

 

All

38

Internal Foodgrains Collection Policy,2010

 

All

39

Rice Collection and Control Order 2008

 

All

40

The National Food Policy plan of Action,(2008-2015)

 

All

41.

The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper,2005

 

All

42

The Food (Special Courts) Act, 1956

Act No.10 of 1956

All

43

The Bangladesh Pure Food Rules, 1967

 

All

44

Fish and Fish product (Inspection and quality Control) Rules, 1997

 

All

45

The Pesticide Rules, 1985

 

All

46

Destructive Insects and pest Rules (Plant Quarantine), 1966

 

All

47

The Protection and Conservation of Fish Act, 1950

Act No.18 of 1950

All

48

The Imports and Exports (Control) Act, 1950

Act No.39 of 1950

All

49

The BSTI Ordinance, 1985

Ordinance No.37 of 1985

All

50

The Essential Articles (price control and Anti Hoarding) Act, 1953

Act No.22 of 1953

All

51

The Country Investment Plan, 2010

 

All

52

   The Irrigation,1876

Act No.3 of 1876

All

52

The Tanks Improvement Act,1939

Act No.15 of 1939

All

54

The Cantonments Pure Food Act,1966

Act No. XVI of 1966

All

55

Foodgrains Supply (Prevention of Prejudicial Activity) Ordinance,1979

Ordinance No. XXVI of 1979

All

56

National Livestock Policy ,2007

 

All

57

The Private Fisheries Protection Act,1889

Act No.2 of 1889

All

58

The Agricultural Produce Markets Regulation Act, 1964 (East Pakistan Act)

Act No.9 of 1964

All

59

The Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation Act

Act No.22 of 1973

All

60

The Bangladesh Rice Research Institute Act, 1973

Act No.10 of 1973

All

61

Fish and Fish Products (Inspection and Quality Control) Ordinance,1983

Ordinance No XX of 1983

All

62

The Protection and Conservation of Fish Rules , 1985

 

All

63

The Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture Ordinance, 1984 (Ordinance)

Ordinance No.2 of 1984

All

64

The Livestock Research Institute Ordinance, 1984

Ordinance No.27 of 1984

All

65

The Breast-Milk Substitutes (Regulation of Marketing) Ordinance, 1984

Ordinance No.33 of 1984

All

66

Fisheries Research Institute (Amendment) Ordinance, 1996

Ordinance No. XXI of 1996

All

67

মাতৃদুগ্ধ বিকল্প, শিশু খাদ্য, বাণিজ্যিকভাবে প্রস্ত্ততকৃত শিশুর বাড়তি খাদ্য ও উহা ব্যবহারের সরঞ্জামাদি (বিপণন নিয়ন্ত্রণ) আইন, ২০১৩

 

Act No.35 of 2013

All

68

Procurement Specifications, Ministry of Food, Rice Mill Control Order etc,.

 

All

69

The sale of Goods Act,1930

Act No.3 of 1930

All

 

 

Annexure-III

List of relevant international instruments or documents on right to food.

    1. African Charter on the Rights and welfare of the Child, 1990.
    2. American Convention on Human Rights known as Optional Protocol to Sansalvador,1988;
    3. Convention Against Torture, 1984;
    4. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006. (Article-28)
    5. FAO adopted the Right to Food Guidelines, offering guidance to States on how to implement their obligations on the right to food, 2004.
    6. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966;
    7. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 (Article-2,11)
    8. Optional protocol to ICESCR,2008
    9. Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (2003)
    10. The Commission on Human Rights in its resolution 2000/10 on the right to food
    11. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), 1979; (Article-12 and 14)
    12. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2007
    13. The Convention on the Rights of the Child(CRC), 1989 (Article-27)
    14. The Food Assistance Convention was adopted, making it the first legally binding international treaty on food aid, 2012
    15. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) adopted in 2000 sets target to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015
    16. United Nations Charter 1945.
    17. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, (Article-25)
    18. Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition, 1974
    19. World Food Summit, 1996


___________________________________________________________________________________




Registration laws of Bangladesh


The Registration Act, 1908

The Copyright Act, 2000

The Trademarks Act, 2009

The Patent and Design Act, 1911

The Societies Registration Act, 1860

The Birth and Death Registration Act, 2004

The Muslim Marriages and Divorces ( Registration) Act, 1974

The Cooperative Societies (Registration) Act, 2001

The Partnership Act, 1932

The Company Act, 1994

The Micro-credit Regulatory Authorities Act, 2006

This law is applicable for all institutions providing micro-credit registered and continuing their business under any of the following laws-

(ক) The Societies Registration Act, 1860 (Act No. XXI of 1860);

(খ) The Trust Act, 1882 (Act No. II of 1882);

(গ) The Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance, 1961 (Ordinance No. XLVI of 1961);

(ঘ) সমবায় সমিতি আইন, ২০০১ (২০০১ সনের ৪৭ নং আইন); বা

(ঙ) কোম্পানী আইন, ১৯৯৪ (১৯৯৪ সনের ১৮নং আইন);

এর অধীন নিবন্ধিত কোন ক্ষুদ্রঋণ প্রতিষ্ঠান;

The Bank Company’s Act, 1991

The Private University Act, 2010

The Foreigners Registration Act

The Political Parties Registration Rules, 2008

The Fish Hatchery Act, 2010

The Motor Vehicles Ordinance, 1983

The Bangladesh Telecommunication Act, 2001

The Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission Act, 2003

The Securities and Exchange Commission Act, 1993

The Shippers Registration Ordinance, 1983

The NGO Affairs Bureau Act, 1991

The voluntary Social welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance,1961

The Wakf Ordiance , 1961/ The Mussalman Wakf Validating Act, 1913/ 1930

The Trust Act, 1882

The Charitable Endowment Act, 1890

The Printing Presses and Publications (Declarations and Registration) Act, 1973.

The Emigration Ordinance, 1982

The Customs Act, 1969

The Imports and Exports (Control) Act, 1950

Medical Practices and Private Clinics and Laboratories (Regulation) Ordinance, 1982

The Income Tax Ordinances, 1984, VAT Act, 1991, Gift Tax Act, 1990 and Special Regulatory Orders (SRO’s).

Drug Council established by the Drugs (control) Ordinance, 1982; the Drugs (supplementary provisions) Ordinance, 1986 and the Drugs Act, 1940.

The Bangladesh Bar Council is established by an Order in 1972.

The Medical and Dental Council Act, 1980.

The Films Club (Registration and Regulation) Act, 1980

The Censorship of Films Act, 1963

The Film Development Corporation Act, 1957 (East Pakistan Act)

The Cinematograph Act, 1918

The National Identity Registration Law, 2010

Building Construction Registration Act, 1952

Shops/ proprietorship business (Local Government laws)

The Bangladesh Labour Act, 2006

The CHT Regulation of 1900

School/College/ Madrassa

For establishing a Non-Government High School one shall go through the Directorate of Education situated near at High Court Division. An English Medium school may be established with the consent of British Council and also by the Directorate of Education. For establishing a college one shall take permission from the National University and also from the Ministry of Education. For establishing a private university one shall go through the UGC and also by the Ministry of Education. For establishing a medical or dental college, permission of the Health Ministry is also applicable. If you want to establish an aeronautical or marine college you need to take permission from the concerned ministry or authority. ForAli’a Madrassa , you need to register in Madrassa Board. For qawmi Madrassa, there is a special Qawmi madrassa Board 9non-government). The Islamic University Kustia is monitoring Fazil and kamil examination of Ali’a madrassa.

Khatians

There are four khatians or record of rights in Bangladesh. The Khatians are B.S Khatian, C.S. Khatian, S.A Khatian and R.S. Khatian. The name of the owner shall be mentioned in the khatian through survey and also after purchase through namjari or record of rights. One shall go through the Tahsil office and also through the Assistant Commissioner (land) for a khatian.

Relevant International laws applicable for Bangladesh on food, consumer rights, gender, environment and Human Rights

Please see lists of the laws of Bangladesh that contains a separate list on international instruments at the end of the list.

 

Others

We are working on other fields of law to identify relevant laws on a particular subject or topic having public importance. Please keep in touch with us and visit ain-qanoon.com.

 

__________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Foot Notes

[1] Judicial Magistrates are appointed by the Bangladesh Judicial Services commission;

[2] Executive Magistrates are appointed by the Bangladesh Public Services Commission; Executive Magistrates cannot try an offence except in the cases of Mobile Court Ordinances or under any special Laws;

[3] Enrolled as per the section/ article 27 (1) or 27 (1A) of the Bangladesh Bar Council Order, 1972 and Rules 59, 60, 60A, 60B, 62 etc of the Bangladesh legal Practitioners and Bar Council Rules, 1972.

[4] Enrolled as per the section/ article 21 of the Bangladesh Bar Council Order, 1972 and Rules 65A of the Bangladesh legal Practitioners and Bar Council Rules, 1972

[5] Advocates on Record is regulated under the Supreme Court (Appellate Division) Rules, 1988

[6] See-sections-492 to 495 of the Cr P C, 1898

[7] Md. Alamgir Hossain, Deputy Director, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Statistics and Informatics Division (SID), Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Measuring Gender-based violence: Results of the Violence Against Women (VAW) Survey in Bangladesh, September 2014. Worked as Supervising Officer in VAW 2011 Survey. Session-3, paper.p-1.

[8] http://www.bbs.gov.bd. (VAW survey-2011)

[9] Md. Alamgir Hossain, Measuring Gender-based violence: Results of the Violence Against Women (VAW) Survey in Bangladesh, op cit, p-5

[10] The daily Star, January 26,2014, http://www.thedailystar.net/most-abused-at-homes, retrieved on 12.2.2015.

[11] National Action Plan (NAP) 2013-2025, MOWCA, bd, p-9.

[12] ibid

[13] www.odhikar.org retrieved on 21.01.2015

[14] www.askbd.org (Oct 12,2014) retrieved on 22.01.2015.

[15] The Daily Star, January 02, 2015, p-3 and 5.

[16] http://www.weforum.org.


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